Aliz Toth is an empirical political economist studying how inequality shapes development and political outcomes. In particular, Aliz focuses on two topics: conflict over development and tolerance. Her dissertation and book project titled, Of Land and Leviathan: How State-Society Bargaining Shapes Infrastructure in India addresses democratic states’ problem of acquiring valuable land from landowners to build large-scale public goods. To understand why land acquisition often leads to conflict, the dissertation combines information on infrastructure projects, political violence, bureaucrats' career trajectories, and litigation. It demonstrates that during land acquisition for infrastructure projects neither the state nor landowners can commit to upholding bargains with the other side, leading to landowners’ collective organizing against land takings. Aliz’s other research projects investigate whether and when marginalized groups' social, political, and economic integration creates more tolerance in various settings, from political parties to migrant communities.